deepwater horizon oil spill bioremediation

Record criminal fines paid by BP in 2012 half went directly to aid the Gulf. Dan Zak for the Washington Post, 3 June 2010. Conferences on this theme occurred at least in 2016 and 2017. [146], Underwater injection of Corexit into the leak may have created the oil plumes which were discovered below the surface. [331] The federal judge assigned to the case, Judge Barbier, refused to halt the settlement program, saying he had not seen evidence of widespread fraud, adding that he was "offended by what he saw as attempts to smear the lawyer administering the claims."[332]. [350], In January 2014, a panel of the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals rejected an effort by BP to curb payment of what it described as "fictitious" and "absurd" claims to a settlement fund for businesses and persons affected by the oil spill. [230][231], On 12 April 2016, a research team reported that 88 percent of about 360 baby or stillborn dolphins within the spill area "had abnormal or under-developed lungs", compared to 15 percent in other areas. The oil slick was comparable in size to naturally occurring oil seeps and was not large enough to pose an immediate threat to wildlife. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, clean-up workers treated the oil with over 1.4 million gallons of various chemical dispersants. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill | Gulf of Mexico | April 2010 What Happened? The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the "BP oil spill") was an industrial disaster that began on 20 April 2010 off of the coast of the United States in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect,[6][7][8][9] considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8 to 31 percent larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill, also in the Gulf of Mexico. The disaster had a significant impact on the environment and the local economy, and it highlighted the . Two days later, following a series of pressure tests, it was announced that the well was completely sealed. (1 May 2010). As oil spread, did BP battle to contain the media? 4) Is there a way to isolate the genes responsible for oil degrading microbes and introduce them to indigenous microbe populations that are incapable of oil degrading? PR Newser, 20 May 2010, Crisis Communications. "Health of Exxon Valdez cleanup workers was never studied". BioWorld Hydrocarbon Treatment was added to weathered oil from the Gulf. Gerald Baron for Crisisblogger, 8 June 2012. were used to cleanup after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Three new agencies replaced it, separating the regulation, leasing, and revenue collection responsibilities respectively, among the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, and Office of Natural Resources Revenue. A decrease in the number of phototrophs, with them being primary producers in marine food chain will greatly impact all other organisms. API announced the creation of an offshore safety institute, separate from API's lobbying operation. The dangers are even greater when poured into the source of a spill, because they are picked up by the current and wash through the Gulf. Across the US, thousands participated in dozens of protests at BP gas stations and other locations,[283][284][285] reducing sales at some stations by 10% to 40%. This is the preferred method when members of the indigenous microbial community are capable of degrading oil [10]. [250] In 2013, during the three-day "Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill & Ecosystem Science Conference",[251] findings discussed included a '"significant percentage" of Gulf residents reporting mental health problems like anxiety, depression and PTSD. Deepwater Horizon. These numbers, coupled with the National Audubon Society scientists' observations of bird colonies and bird mortality well after the acute phase, have led scientists to conclude that more than one million birds ultimately succumbed to the lethal effects of the Gulf oil spill. 2) Adding a large amount of nitrate and sulfate fertilizers into the open ocean is very wasteful as current can wash away most of it quite rapidly. Calling the vicinity of the spill "one of the most productive ocean ecosystems in the world", the study found that even at very low concentrations "PAH cardiotoxicity was potentially a common form of injury among a broad range of species in the vicinity of the oil. For the Deep Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers used 1,400,000USgal (5,300,000l; 1,200,000impgal) of various chemical dispersants to further breakdown the oil. The explosion "[236][238][239] Riki Ott, a marine toxicologist with experience of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, advised families to evacuate the Gulf. [310] Also the United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce conducted a number of hearings, including hearings of Tony Hayward and heads of Anadarko and Mitsui's exploration unit. 1) The use of dispersants can be harmful to the environment but it is necessary to increase the rate of crude oil degradation by microbes. [313] The report found that on 20 April 2010, managers misread pressure data and gave their approval for rig workers to replace drilling fluid in the well with seawater, which was not heavy enough to prevent gas that had been leaking into the well from firing up the pipe to the rig, causing the explosion. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to . [256][257] The Gulf of Mexico commercial fishing industry was estimated to have lost $247million as a result of postspill fisheries closures. [176] The Coast Guard and BP denied having a policy of restricting journalists; they noted that members of the media had been embedded with the authorities and allowed to cover response efforts since the beginning of the effort, with more than 400 embeds aboard boats and aircraft to date. Microbial biosurfactants help in bioremediation of hydrophobic compounds by two main mechanisms. [268][269] Later a six-month offshore drilling (below 500ft (150m) of water) moratorium was enforced by the United States Department of the Interior. Construction of two such wells had begun in May. [197] A study of insect populations in the coastal marshes affected by the spill also found a significant impact. The result could have long-term effects because oil could remain in the food chain for generations. MOEX Offshore 2007 agreed to pay $45million to the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, $25million to five Gulf state and $20million to supplemental environmental projects. Based on 16S rRNA gene community analysis, the most prominent group of hydrocarbon degraders detected at contaminated sites were from the genus Pseudomonas [9]. The rig's sinking on April 22 began the discharge of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Aquatic birds are immobilized by the oil because the oil penetrates the porous feathers and therefore affecting their ability to catch air. The Deepwater Horizon criminal case, also prosecuted under the Clean Water Act, resulted in the largest criminal penalty with a single entity in U.S. history. "[151][152], The three basic approaches for removing the oil from the water were: combustion, offshore filtration, and collection for later processing. [85][86][87] On 3 August 2010, first test oil and then drilling mud was pumped at a slow rate of approximately 2bbl (320L) per minute into the well-head. [234], The United States Department of Health and Human Services set up the GuLF Study in June 2010 in response to these reports. Gas-station owners divided", "Despite BP oil spill, Louisiana still loves Big Oil", "FB10-055: BP Oil Spill: NOAA Modifies Commercial and Recreational Fishing Closure in the Oil-Affected Portions of the Gulf of Mexico", "Deepwater Horizon/BP Oil Spill: Size and Percent Coverage of Fishing Area Closures Due to BP Oil Spill". Pumping continued for eight hours, at the end of which the well was declared to be "in a static condition. In addition to the private lawsuits and civil governmental actions, the federal government charged multiple companies and five individuals with federal crimes. Petroleum is constantly seeping through cracks and vents on the ocean floor; organisms like Pseudomonas thrive in petroleum present environments have evolved mechanisms that would allow them to use the energy rich hydrocarbons as a nutrient source [10]. [214] The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) reports that sea turtles, mostly endangered Kemps ridley sea turtles, have been stranding at a high rate. . [259] Due to the loss of the market value, BP had dropped from the second to the fourth largest of the four major oil companies by 2013. It is possible to add fertilizers, such as iron, nitrogen and phosphorus, to stimulate the growth of such bacteria, an approach used to speed up microbial activity in the sediment along the Alaska. Post-oil spill samples on the other hand, contain mostly oil-degrading organisms with drastic decrease in diversity. [60], Concerns were raised about the appearance of underwater, horizontally extended plumes of dissolved oil. How did the Deepwater Horizon oil spill affect birds? The organization Smithsonians National Zoological Park also helped to rescue the remaining marine life. The genes code for ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, which are necessary to cleave the aromatic rings of PAH [4]. [241], Following the 26 May 2010 hospitalization of seven fishermen that were working in the cleanup crew, BP requested that the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health perform a Health Hazard Evaluation. [293][294], In the UK, there was anger at the American press and news outlets for the misuse of the term "British Petroleum" for the company a name which has not been used since British Petroleum merged with the American company Amoco in 1998 to form BP Amoco. As a result, about $64million of additional payments was made. The goal of NRDA is to restore natural resources and compensate the public for lost recreational use., we evaluated the type and amount of restoration needed in order to return the Gulf to the condition it would have been in before the spill and to compensate the public for the natural resource services that were injured or lost. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred in 2010 was one of the most devastating oil spills in history. Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Bioremediation was used extensively to combat the devastating effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 and British Petroleum's Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The United States Government report, published in September 2011, pointed to defective cement on the well, faulting mostly BP, but also rig operator Transocean and contractor Halliburton. The effects of a small spill can take 15 . Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [281], Public opinion polls in the U.S. were generally critical of the way President Obama and the federal government handled the disaster and they were extremely critical of BPs response. [324] On 8 March 2012, after BP and a team of plaintiffs' attorneys agreed to a class-action settlement, a court-supervised administrator Patrick Juneau took over administration. "[309] The investigation by United States Attorney General Eric Holder was announced on 1 June 2010. What resulted from this one incident was an economic, political, scientific and legal nightmare. On beaches the main techniques were sifting sand, removing tar balls, and digging out tar mats manually or by using mechanical devices. The explosion, which killed 11 men, caused the rig to sink and started a catastrophic oil leak from the well. Through the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA)Investigation performed by trustees to identify injuries to natural resources caused by oil spills, hazardous substance releases, and grounding incidents in National Marine Sanctuaries, and plan restoration activities. "[304], The U.S. government rejected offers of cleanup help from Canada, Croatia, France, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United Nations. [260] During the crisis, BP gas stations in the United States reported a sales drop of between 10 and 40% due to backlash against the company. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. [216] In December 2013, the journal Environmental Science & Technology published a study finding that of 32 dolphins briefly captured from 24-km stretch near southeastern Louisiana, half were seriously ill or dying. ", "BP Buys 'Oil' Search Terms to Redirect Users to Official Company Website", "BP buys 'oil spill' sponsored links for search engines", "Bob Dudley: Profile of the new BP chief executive", "Why we disrupted Tony Hayward's award at the University of Birmingham", "Honorary degree for ex-BP Gulf of Mexico boss is a sick joke", "University defends degree for Deepwater Horizon boss Tony Hayward", "Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: International Offers of Assistance", "U.S. not accepting foreign help on oil spill", "Jones Act: Maritime politics strain Gulf oil spill cleanup", "Salazar Launches Safety and Environmental Protection Reforms to Toughen Oversight of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations", "Weekly Address: President Obama Establishes Bipartisan National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling", "Attorney General Eric Holder on Gulf Oil Spill", "Anadarko and Mitsui executives set to testify", "Deepwater Horizon blowout preventer 'faulty' Congress", Transocean, Halliburton blast BP report on cause of blowout, oil spill, "Gulf oil spill: President's panel says firms complacent", "Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling", "BP and firms made risky decisions before spill: report", "Blunders Abounded Before Gulf Spill, Panel Says", "BP, Transocean, Halliburton blamed by presidential Gulf oil spill commission", "Panel: Without changes in oil industry and government, BP-like spill could happen again", "DNV report on Deepwater Horizon BOP concluded", "Gulf oil spill report: BP ultimately responsible in Gulf spill", "Comment. 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